101. Most carbon dioxide transported in the blood A. in : 1380572.
101. Most carbon dioxide is transported in the blood
A. in the form of bicarbonate ions.
B. bound to hemoglobin.
C. dissolved in the plasma.
D. by the leukocytes.
E. in the form of carbonic acid.
102. Hemoglobin that has released its oxygen
A. loses its affinity for oxygen.
B. will dissolve in the plasma.
C. will bind more readily to carbon dioxide.
D. is broken down to heme and globin and excreted.
E. will bind more readily to oxygen.
103. The chloride shift refers to the
A. effect of chloride ions on the oxygen dissociation curve.
B. exchange of chloride ions for bicarbonate ions across the red blood cell membrane.
C. exchange of chloride ions for carbon dioxide across alveolar cell membranes.
D. effect of chloride ions on hydrogen ion diffusion from red blood cells.
E. exchange of chloride ions for hemoglobin across the RBC membrane.
104. Which of the following events in the chloride shift occurs last?
A. Carbon dioxide diffuses into a red blood cell.
B. Carbonic acid dissociates to form bicarbonate and hydrogen ions.
C. Bicarbonate ions diffuse into the plasma.
D. CO2 and H2O ? H2CO3
E. Carbonic acid dissociates to form water and carbon dioxide.
105. Which of the following molecules acts as a buffer during the chloride shift?
A. carbon dioxide
C. carbonic anhydrase
E. bicarbonate ion
106. The Haldane effect means that
A. as hemoglobin releases CO2, the ability to pick up O2 increases.
B. as hemoglobin releases bicarbonate ions, the ability to pick up chloride ions increases.
C. as hemoglobin releases O2, the ability to pick up CO2 increases.
D. as hemoglobin releases O2, the ability to pick up CO2 decreases.
107. If there is an accumulation of acidic products in the plasma, one would expect
A. an increase in respiration rate.
B. a decrease in respiration rate.
C. no influence on respiration rate.
D. an increase in residual volume.
108. Direct stimulation of neurons within the dorsal respiratory group would cause an increase in the frequency of action potential in the
A. glossopharyngeal nerve that innervates the pharyngeal muscles.
B. phrenic nerve that innervates the diaphragm.
C. vagus nerve that innervates the smooth muscle of the bronchioles.
D. intercostal nerves to internal intercostals muscles.
E. intercostal nerves to external intercostals muscles.
109. Which of the following statements concerning the dorsal and ventral respiratory groups is false?
A. They are located in the reticular activating system.
B. There is cross communication between these two groups.
C. These groups establish the basic rate and depth of breathing.
D. These groups increase the number of action potentials to the respiratory muscles during inspiration.
E. Two dorsal and two ventral respiratory groups make up the medullary respiratory center.
110. The ventral respiratory group
A. is located in the pons.
B. stimulates the intercostal and abdominal muscles.
C. is part of the pontine respiratory group.
D. is active only in exhalation.
E. stimulates the diaphragm.
101. Most carbon dioxide transported in the blood A. in : 1380572