106.You have a friend whose phone number 246-1478.  You  : 1200708

  106.You have a friend whose phone number 246-1478.  You  : 1200708.


  106.You have a friend whose phone number is 246-1478.  You  easily recall the number when you want to call him/her, because you remember that the last four digits of the number form an ‘L’ on the touch tone dialing system.  Of the following, this best illustrates:

a.retention of the information in working memory.

b.encoding into long-term memory through rehearsal.

c.encoding the information into long-term memory through organization.

d.encoding the information into long-term memory through imagery.


  107.Suppose we’re studying the topic of motivation.  As we begin, we’re presented with the following:




|                                                                                   |

Intrinsic                                                                  Extrinsic

_______|________                                                         |

|                  |                                             Behaviorism

Cognitive                 Humanistic

Motivation           Motivation

Theory           Theory



Of the following, which process for making information meaningful does this hierarchy best illustrate?






Use the following information for items 108 and 109.


Henry James is teaching his students about the eastern and western states of the United States. He prepares a chart, which is outlined as follows:













Eastern States






Western States






He assigns teams of two to gather information about each of the cells in the chart (such as the geography of the western states).  The students provide the information; Henry helps them put it in the chart.


  108.  Henry’s use of a chart in his lesson best illustrates which of the following processes for making information meaningful?

a.Schema activation





  109. Having the students gather and put the information in the chart is an effective teaching strategy. Of the following, which statement best explains why having the students gather the information will be effective?

a.When the students are gathering the information, they’re in cognitively active roles.

b.The process of gathering the information is an example of elaborative rehearsal.

c.When the students are gathering the information, it is retained in their sensory memories.

d.When the students are gathering the information, they are creating mnemonic devices to help them remember it.






  110. You are about to begin your day’s learning activity.  The students are watching you and are ready to begin.  Research indicates that an effective beginning point in the learning process is review in the form of statements such as, “OK, now describe in your own words what we did yesterday,” to serve as a springboard for the day’s lesson.  Using review in this way best illustrates an attempt to capitalize primarily on which of the following strategies for promoting meaningful encoding?




d.Schema activation


  111.After reading the chapter in the text, Marisa then writes an answer to each of the questions that are in the margins of the book. After writing her answer, she looks at the feedback in the student supplement. Her friend Helen also reads the text. She then reads the questions in the margins and then looks at the feedback in the student supplement. Marisa consistently scores higher on the tests and quizzes. Of the following, based on what we know about making information meaningful, which is the best explanation for why Marisa scores higher than does Helen?

a.Marisa’s perception of the questions is more accurate than is Helen’s.

b.By writing the answers, Marisa puts herself in a more cognitively active role than does Helen.

c.Marisa attends to the questions better than does Helen.

d.Marisa avoids overloading working memory more effectively than does Helen.


  112. Mrs. Chang is working with her students on the processes involved in solving simultaneous equations in algebra. As she models solutions, she calls on as many different students as possible and asks them to explain why each of the steps is important. Of the following, which best explains why having her students provide explanations is more effective than simply modeling the solutions?

a.Having the students explain helps the students rehearse the information in their long-term memories.

b.Having the students explain keeps the information in their sensory memories.

c.Having the students explain helps Mrs. Chang retrieve important information for the students.

d.Having the students explain puts them in cognitively active roles.


  113.Mr. Smith has a girl named Katherine in his class.  He is very good about knowing his students’ names and calls on all of them regularly.  One weekend he was at a social event and Katherine was there as well.  He recognized her and prepared to introduce her to his wife.  Much to his embarrassment he couldn’t remember her name.  Information processing theorists would suggest the best explanation would be which of the following?

a.He never got her name encoded into long-term memory, so he was unable to retrieve it.

b.He had encoded Katherine’s name in the context of his class, and the social event was a different context.

c.The social event caused his perception to screen out her name.

d.Her name was not meaningful to him.


  114. You run into a person that you once knew very well, but you haven’t seen the person in a long time. You have a casual conversation, and you go home to tell your roommate, trying for all you’re worth to remember the person’s name but not being able to.  Which of the following is the most likely reason you can’t remember the person’s name?

a.The name is in long-term memory, but you cannot retrieve it.

b.The name was in working memory, and you have forgotten it.

c.The name never was encoded into long-term memory, so you lost the memory trace.

d.You were not sufficiently reinforced for remembering the name, so you’ve forgotten it.




  115.You have taught your students the rule for forming singular possessives, which states that an apostrophe s is added to the singular noun. Later, because of their understanding of the rule for forming singular possessives, they become confused about the rules for forming plural possessives and contractions. Of the following, which is the best explanation for the students’ difficulties?

a.The inability to retrieve the rule has occurred.

b.Proactive interference has occurred.

c.Retroactive interference has occurred.

d.Encoding failure has occurred.




  106.You have a friend whose phone number 246-1478.  You  : 1200708

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