11) The renal ________ the site at which the renal : 1200387.
11) The renal ________ is the site at which the renal artery and renal nerve enter and the renal vein exits.
12) The cup-shaped chamber, or the expanded end of a nephron, is known as the
B) glomerular capsule.
C) proximal convoluted tubule.
D) distal convoluted tubule.
E) loop of Henle.
13) The portion of the nephron that attaches to the collecting system is the
A) proximal convoluted tubule.
B) loop of Henle.
C) distal convoluted tubule.
D) collecting duct.
E) minor calyx.
14) The visceral epithelium, which covers the glomerular capillaries of the glomerular capsule, consists of
A) capillary endothelium.
B) lamina densa.
D) the basement membrane of the capillaries.
E) capsular space.
15) The vasa recta
A) surround the proximal and distal convoluted tubules of the nephron.
B) are blood vessels that supply the renal cortex.
C) are the blood vessels through which blood reaches each nephron.
D) form the capillary network contained in the Bowman’s capsule of the renal corpuscle.
E) are long, straight capillaries that parallel the nephron loop deep into the renal medulla.
16) Considering the spatial relationship of the kidneys, the ________ kidney often sits slightly ________ than the ________ kidney.
A) left; lower; right
B) left; more anterior; right
C) right; lower; left
D) right; higher; left
E) right; more posterior; left
17) Which of the following is correct about the location of the kidney(s)?
A) There is one kidney deep to the liver.
B) The kidneys are bilateral and retroperitoneal.
C) The left kidney is lower than the right.
D) The kidneys are in the anterior abdominal wall.
E) The kidneys lie in the pelvic cavity, and only their superior surfaces are covered by a layer of peritoneum.
18) In which renal component does urine production begin?
A) renal cortex
B) renal medulla
C) minor calyx
D) renal papilla
E) renal pelvis
19) Which of the following is a primary function of the distal convoluted tubule?
A) reabsorption of water from the tubular fluid
B) conduction of urine to the minor calices
C) adjusts the tubular fluid’s composition and determines the final osmotic concentration and volume of the urine
D) active secretion of ions, acids, drugs, and toxins
E) filtration of plasma to initiate urine formation
20) Why does the peritubular fluid of the renal medulla contain an unusually high solute concentration?
A) The cells of the juxtaglomerular complex secrete the hormone erythropoietin and the enzyme renin.
B) The collecting system reabsorbs water and reabsorbs or secretes sodium, potassium, hydrogen, and bicarbonate ions.
C) The cells of the proximal convoluted tubule reabsorb organic nutrients, plasma proteins, and ions from the tubular fluid.
D) The ascending limb of the nephron loop is not permeable to water and solutes.
E) The filtration slits between the slender processes of the podocytes prevent the passage of blood cells and most plasma proteins.