31) Even though in a similar habitat, a founder population : 1380846.
31) Even though in a similar habitat, a founder population that breaks away from the parent population may become very different because of:
B) genetic drift.
C) natural selection.
D) the bottleneck effect.
32) Extreme hunting pressure has caused northern elephant seals to become less genetically diverse because of:
A) genetic drift.
B) population bottleneck.
C) natural selection.
D) founder effect.
33) Which of the following is incorrectly paired?
34) The greater prairie chicken once flourished on the prairies of Illinois. The conversion of prairie to farmland reduced their numbers from millions to only 50 birds by 1993. Poor genetic diversity resulted in only 50 percent of eggs hatching. Bringing in birds from neighboring states increased their genetic diversity, which improved the egg-hatching rate to 90 percent. These changes in genetic diversity were the result of:
A) loss of genetic diversity through natural selection and restoration of genetic diversity by genetic drift.
B) loss of genetic diversity through mutation and restoration of genetic diversity by gene flow.
C) loss of genetic diversity through genetic drift and restoration of genetic diversity by natural selection.
D) loss of genetic diversity through genetic drift and restoration of genetic diversity by gene flow.
35) Which of the following statements is true?
A) The advantage a trait conveys depends on its environmental context.
B) A population will always evolve to fit current conditions.
C) All traits are simultaneously maximized in a population.
D) All traits currently in a population must have provided a reproductive advantage at some point in time.
36) Which of the following males in a given population would be considered the most fit in an evolutionary sense?
A) one that produced 1,000 offspring, of which 100 survived but 99 did not reproduce
B) one that produced 100 offspring, of which 10 survived but 9 did not reproduce
C) one that produced 1,000 offspring, all of which died before reaching reproductive age
D) one that produced two offspring, both of which survived and produced offspring of their own
37) Which of the following possibilities is the best indicator of an organism’s evolutionary fitness?
A) the number of eggs it produces over its lifetime
B) the number of gametes it produces during the years when it is likely to be reproducing
C) the number of offspring it produces over its lifetime that survive to breed.
D) the number of offspring it produces over its lifetime
38) For the Galapagos Islands finch species Geospiza fortis, drought conditions produced a change in the population in which the next generation had larger beaks than the previous one. What produced this change in the population?
A) Birds with larger beaks had higher fitness, so they could produce more offspring that inherited the same trait.
B) Birds with smaller beaks flew to nearby islands where food was more plentiful.
C) Birds with smaller beaks had higher fitness, but they were outcompeted by birds with larger beaks.
D) Birds with smaller beaks had higher fitness, but they waited to reproduce until wet weather returned.
39) Which of these humans is the “fittest” as far as natural selection is concerned?
A) a person with seven children who is killed in an automobile accident at age 40
B) a person who lives to the age of 105 and has two children
C) a person who lives to the age of 110 and has no children
D) a very popular film star who is still alive, is very rich, and has three children from three spouses
40) How successful an individual is at passing on its genes to the next generation is known as:
D) sexual selection.
Read the statement below, and then answer the following question(s).
A small population of deer is introduced to an island. All the males have 11 to 13 points on their antlers.
31) Even though in a similar habitat, a founder population : 1380846