31) The following major steps in the process of endochondral : 1200485

31) The following major steps in the process of endochondral : 1200485.


31) The following are major steps in the process of endochondral ossification:

1. Bone forms at the diaphysis surface.

2. Secondary ossification centers form in the epiphyses.

3. Chondrocytes enlarge and calcify.

4. Osteoclasts create a marrow cavity.

5. Blood vessels invade the inner cartilage and new osteoblasts form spongy bone at a primary ossification center.

The correct order for these events is

A) 3, 1, 5, 4, 2.

B) 1, 3, 5, 4, 2.

C) 1, 5, 3, 4, 2.

D) 2, 3, 1, 5, 4.

E) 3, 1, 4, 5, 2.

32) Which of the following occurs in intramembranous ossification?

A) Hyaline cartilage model forms.

B) Periosteum forms a collar around the cartilage.

C) Fibrous connective tissue is converted to bone tissue, which first resembles spongy bone.

D) As the bone enlarges, osteoclasts break down some of the spongy bone and create a marrow cavity.

E) Ossification centers are formed as blood vessels and osteoblasts enter the centers of the epiphyses.

33) A compound fracture

A) is caused by an underlying pathology.

B) results in bone projecting through the skin.

C) is a type of incomplete fracture.

D) is also known as a closed fracture.

E) is completely internal.

34) Which cell populations are particularly sensitive to changes in calcium ion concentration?

A) neurons and connective tissue fibroblasts

B) elastin and collagen fibers

C) collagen and reticular fibers

D) cartilage cells

E) neurons and muscle cells

35) The hormone calcitonin functions to

A) stimulate osteoclast activity.

B) stimulate the absorption of calcium and phosphate ions in the digestive tract.

C) depress calcium levels in body fluids.

D) depress osteoblast activity.

E) elevate calcium levels in body fluids.

36) The process of depositing calcium salts into a tissue other than bone is called ________.

A) ossification

B) remodeling

C) resorption

D) osteolysis

E) calcification

37) Two hormones that work together to elevate calcium levels in the body are ________ and ________.

A) parathyroid hormone; calcitriol

B) vitamin A; vitamin C

C) parathyroid hormone; calcitonin

D) growth hormone; calcitonin

E) vitamin D3; growth hormone

38) Which of the following is part of the appendicular skeleton?

A) the skull

B) the manubrium

C) the sternum

D) the scapula

E) the vertebrae

39) Which of the following is part of the axial skeleton?

A) clavicle

B) patella

C) carpal bones

D) ribs

E) coxal bones

40) The appendicular skeleton contains ________ bones.

A) 80

B) 206

C) 126

D) 64

E) 62



31) The following major steps in the process of endochondral : 1200485

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