31) Which of the following situations describes a scenario in : 1380855.
31) Which of the following situations describes a scenario in which allopatric speciation might occur?
A) A mutation makes certain frogs mate two days earlier in the season.
B) A mutation changes the pollinator a plant can utilize.
C) An earthquake separates a lizard population into two groups.
D) A pair of birds colonizes an island with numerous empty niches.
Refer to the scenario below, and then answer the following question(s).
Species of fruit fly larvae in the genus Rhagoletis each feed on a particular kind of fruit. Rhagoletis pomonella feeds on the small red fruit of the hawthorn tree. In 1865, farmers in the Hudson River valley found that R. pomonella flies had begun attacking their apples and then spread to apple orchards in adjacent areas of Massachusetts and Connecticut. These now separate varieties of flies, the apple and haw flies, usually don’t interbreed with each other because their periods of mating coincide with the different ripening times of apples and hawthorn fruit. Each variety is becoming specialized to feed and reproduce in its own particular microhabitat and may be transitioning to separate species.
32) If the apple and haw flies become distinct enough to be separate species, their evolution is an example of:
A) gametic isolation.
B) behavioral isolation.
C) sympatric speciation.
D) allopatric speciation.
33) If the apple and haw flies no longer interbreed due to the different ripening times of apples and hawthorns, this would be an example of what kind of reproductive isolating mechanism?
A) ecological isolation
B) temporal isolation
C) behavioral isolation
D) mechanical isolation
E) gametic isolation
34) When the London underground (subway) system was built in the nineteenth century, mosquitoes moved into the tunnels and became adapted to biting the customers and small animals that inhabit the subway system. Like people, mosquitoes can freely enter and leave through the tunnel entrances. Recently, DNA analysis and attempts to cross-breed above-ground mosquitoes with underground mosquitoes indicate that there are now two different species. The underground insects are visibly larger. Which term best describes what has happened?
A) sympatric speciation
B) behavioral incompatibility
C) temporal isolation
D) population bottleneck
35) Thinking of the examples in your book of adaptive radiation, in which of the following environments might you be most likely to find adaptive radiation?
A) among houseflies living in a garbage dump
B) in fruit flies that feed on different yeast strains specific to different species of cacti in the desert
C) in earthworms feeding on detritus
D) among insects that are generalist feeders
36) Since the Pleistocene ice age, deserts have been gradually forming in the southwestern United States. As the original lakes and rivers of this area shrank into isolated streams and springs, the fishes living in them developed a strong potential for:
A) hybrid sterility.
C) hybrid inviability.
D) temporal isolation.
37) When a species invades a new habitat and evolves rapidly into several new species, what has occurred?
A) divergent speciation
C) adaptive radiation
D) phyletic speciation
38) Which of these taxonomic categories is more inclusive than family and less inclusive than class?
39) Which of these is a correct order of taxonomic categories from most inclusive to least inclusive?
A) kingdom, domain, phylum, order, class, family, genus
B) domain, phylum, kingdom, order, class, family, genus
C) domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus
D) domain, kingdom, class, phylum, order, family, genus
40) Which field of biology is concerned with the diversity and relatedness of organisms?