41) After considerable effort, you able to collect and analyze : 1380839.
41) After considerable effort, you are able to collect and analyze DNA from the winged animal. You obtain the nucleotide sequence of the cytochrome c oxidase gene. When you compare this sequence to the sequence of the same gene in a bat, a rodent, a shrew, and a human, you find the following numbers of differences:
winged animal-bat11 differences
winged animal-rodent14 differences
winged animal-shrew15 differences
winged animal-human9 differences
Which hypothesis does this data support?
A) Of the mammals tested, the winged animal is probably most closely related to shrews.
B) Of the mammals tested, the winged animal is probably most closely related to humans.
C) Of the mammals tested, the winged animal is probably most closely related to rodents.
D) The winged animal is probably most closely related to bats, because bats also have wings.
42) John Endler’s experiment with guppies demonstrates which of the following in regard to evolution through natural selection?
A) Male guppies can change color depending on their environment.
B) There is one optimal set of traits for each species.
C) The reproductive success a trait imparts depends on the environmental context.
D) Bigger and brighter is always better.
43) Scientists may compare similar genes in different species and determine what percentage of base pairs is identical. From this, it can be estimated how long ago the two species shared a common ancestor. The validity of this conclusion depends on an important assumption. This assumption is that:
A) mutations occur at a fairly constant rate in all evolutionary lines.
B) all living things use the same genetic code.
C) the gene codes for a functional protein.
D) both species belong to the same kingdom.
44) The various lines of evidence for evolution together support the core principles of evolution because:
A) they are internally consistent and agree with each other.
B) they only occasionally are falsified.
C) they are internally consistent even though they don’t agree with each other.
D) scientists ignore the inconsistencies and choose the best lines of evidence to support their opinions.
45) Animals use auricular muscles to swivel their ears to home in on sounds. Humans have auricular muscles but we can’t turn our ears. So why do humans have auricular muscles?
A) People who can wiggle their ears due to auricular muscles have a reproductive advantage.
B) They are still needed to help us swallow and retract our tongue.
C) They are vestigial structures we inherited from mammalian ancestors
D) They are needed in the development of the human embryo but not in the adult.
46) Before Darwin, most scientists believed that species of organisms were fixed and unchanging.
47) Charles Lyell’s publication on human population growth was important to Charles Darwin developing the theory of evolution.
48) The most important concept that Charles Darwin brought to the discussion of evolution was that natural selection was the driving force behind the change that occurred in organisms over time.
49) Charles Darwin published his theory of evolution through natural selection immediately after returning from his trip on the HMS Beagle.
50) A small group of finches on the Galapagos Islands was very important to Darwin in helping him to develop the theory of evolution.