68.From a social constructivist perspective, the lesson Smart Shopping was : 1200728.
68.From a social constructivist perspective, the lesson on Smart Shopping was effective because:
a.students were organized into same-language groups.
b.students were allowed to manipulate and use hand-held calculators.
c.the tasks integrated math with reading.
d.students were encouraged to explain their thinking to each other.
69.Which of the following is the least accurate description of the teacher’s role in instruction based on constructivist views of learning compared to teacher-centered learning activities, such as lecture?
a.Teachers’ roles will change from presenting and explaining information to guiding student understanding.
b.Teachers’ roles will become less important in instruction based on constructivist learning theory, since instruction based on constructivist views of learning requires that students take more responsibility for their own learning.
c.Teachers’ roles in planning will be more complex in instruction based on constructivist learning theory, because teachers will need to plan for social interaction and the learning environment in addition to goals and learning activities.
d.Teachers will need more expertise when grounding instruction in constructivist learning theory, because instruction based on constructivist views of learning is more complex and sophisticated than are teacher-centered learning activities, such as lecture.
70. Which of the following least illustrates a learning activity based on constructivist views of learning?
a.Geography students use longitude and latitude to describe how to tell a friend to find a remote camping location in the mountains.
b.Math students look at manufacturing costs and the prices marked on a series of soap products to determine the percentage of profit.
c.Science students explain why a can of pork and beans explodes—if a hole isn’t poked in the can—when placed in a campfire.
d.Language arts students rewrite a series of sentences, each of which contains grammatical errors.
Use the following information for items 71 and 72.
Mrs. Bastuba has taught the principle, “Less-dense materials float on more-dense materials,” by illustrating it with demonstrations, such as showing that oil floats on water, because oil is less dense than water, and ice floats in water because ice is less dense than water. The students can state the principle, and she is now working on some applications with them. She drops an ice cube into a cup of water and another ice cube into a cup of alcohol, and the students observe that the ice floats in the water but sinks in the alcohol.
71.Of the following, questions, which is least consistent with instruction based on constructivist views of learning?
a.“Do you think the density of alcohol is greater or less than the density of water, and why do you think so?”
b.“Explain how the density of ice compares to the density of alcohol.”
c.“What is the principle that relates density and flotation?”
d.“How are water and alcohol similar and different from each other?”
72.Katrina concludes that the ice is more dense than the alcohol. After Katrina makes her conclusion, which of the following teacher actions is most consistent with instruction based on constructivist views of learning?
a.Say, “That’s an excellent conclusion, Katrina. Very well done.”
b.Ask, “What do you think we should do next with the ice cube?”
c.Ask, “How do you know that the ice cube is more dense than the alcohol?”
d.Say, “Describe again what the ice cube is made of.”
73.Of the following, which is the most important problem with using explanations as the primary way of developing student understanding?
a.Explanations tend to be inaccurate, so students develop misconceptions about the topics they study.
b.Teachers rarely use examples when they provide explanations, so students are unable to construct understanding.
c.Explanations rarely include information about the real world, so students aren’t involved in real-world tasks.
d.Explanations don’t allow the teacher to examine students’ thinking as the learning activity develops.
Use the following information for items 74 and 75.
Four teachers are teaching the rule for punctuating nonessential clauses to their language arts students.
Kimberly Cobb displays six sentences on the overhead, three of which contain essential clauses and three others that contain nonessential clauses. She points out the clauses, correctly punctuates them, and explains why they are punctuated in this way. She then gives the students several sentences for practice, directing them to correctly punctuate the clauses in the sentences.
Cassie Greene presents a paragraph that contains three underlined essential clauses and three other underlined nonessential clauses, each punctuated correctly. The class discusses the common features of the underlined and italicized clauses, and, with Cassie’s guidance they arrive at a rule for punctuating essential and nonessential clauses. Cassie then directs the students to write a paragraph containing at least three examples of essential clauses and three other examples of nonessential clauses, all punctuated correctly.
Steve Smith presents several sentences that contain essential clauses and other sentences that contain nonessential clauses. He directs the students to look for clauses in the sentences that have commas around them, and he guides them to conclude that the clauses set off by commas are not essential, whereas those that don’t have commas around them are essential. He then gives the students some additional sentences to punctuate correctly.
Keith Sanderson presents a passage in which several examples of essential and nonessential clauses are embedded. He asks the students to describe the passages, and after they have made several observations, he punctuates the sentences properly, explaining the rule in the process.
74. The teacher who was most consistent with constructivist views of learning in his or her instruction was:
75.The teacher who was least consistent with constructivist views of learning in his or her instruction was:
Use the following information for items 76 and 77.
Four teachers are teaching the concepts of adjective and adverb phrases to their language arts students.
Mrs. Mariadaga presents a two-paragraph passage that contains three underlined adjective phrases and three italicized adverb phrases. The class discusses the common features of the phrases and what they modify and describes adjective and adverb phrases. The students then write a paragraph containing at least one adjective and one adverb phrase.
Mr. Bush displays several sentences—some of which contain adjective phrases and others of which contain adverb phrases—on the overhead. He points out the adjective phrases, underlines them, and points to the noun they modify. He does the same thing with the sentences containing the adverb phrases. He then gives the students several sentences for practice, directing them to underline the phrase in each case, identify it as an adjective or adverb phrase, and circle the word it modifies.
Mr. Moy presents several sentences that contain underlined adjective phrases. He asks the students to look for the word that each modifies and identify it as a noun or a verb. He then asks them what the phrases that modify nouns must be, and when no one answers he asks them what modifies nouns. They respond, “Adjectives,” and he points out that these are adjective phrases. He does the same thing with adverb phrases, and he then has them work several exercises identifying the word the phrases modify in each case.
Mrs. Evans presents a passage in which several examples of adjective and adverb phrases are embedded. She asks the students to describe the passages, and after they have made several observations, she underlines the adjective phrases, pointing out that they modify a noun in each case. She circles the noun they modify to be sure that the students focus on the relationship between the noun and the phrase. She then repeats the process with the adverb phrases.
76.The teacher’s instruction that was most nearly applied the constructivist suggestions for classroom practice was:
77.The teacher’s instruction that least nearly applied the constructivist suggestions for classroom practice was: