90.Which of the following the best definition of scaffolding?
a.Providing assessment : 1200635.
90.Which of the following is the best definition of scaffolding?
a.Providing assessment to identify the students’ zones of proximal development
b.Assisting the development of disadvantaged learners with early intervention experiences
c.Providing social experiences for youngsters that reduces egocentricity
d.Providing instructional assistance that allows a learner to proceed through the zone of proximal development
91.According to Vygotsky, students can benefit from help if:
a.they are at the stage of concrete operational or higher.
b.their inner speech is developed past preoperational.
c.tasks are in their zones of proximal development.
d.they are capable of transformation and reversibility.
92.The name given to the instructional assistance that allows the learner to progress through the zone of proximal development is:
93.Which of the following is the best description of an important difference between Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s views of development?
a.Piaget believed that development is innate, whereas Vygotsky believed it resulted from interactions with the environment.
b.Piaget believed language merely aided in disrupting equilibrium, whereas Vygotsky felt it was central in raising intellectual functioning.
c.Vygotsky considered social interaction a means for testing schemes, whereas Piaget felt it was the means for acquiring language and culture.
d.Vygotsky’s notion of active experimentation is absent from Piaget’s framework for learning and development.
94.Jonas was employing a strategy for solving problems while doing his homework. He thought as he was solving the first problem, “Let’s see. The first step is to determine what I already know from the problem. I need to write that down. Next, I will write down what it is I need to know.” The statement in quotes best illustrates which of Vygotsky’s concepts?
Use the following information for items 95-97.
Steve, Norma, and Dawn, all second graders, are working with subtraction when regrouping is involved, such as
– 7 – 8
Mrs. Newton, the children’s teacher, provides them with help. As she tries to guide the students through the problems, Steve still has difficulty. Norma is able to solve the problems with Mrs. Newton’s guidance but is still unable to do them on her own. Dawn is able to do problems with regrouping without assistance.
95.Based on Vygotsky’s work, the task is in which student’s (or students’) zone of proximal development?
d.Steve and Norma
96. The task is still beyond which student’s (or students’) zone of proximal development?
d.Norma and Dawn
97.The task is below which student’s (or students’) zone of proximal development?
d.Steve and Norma
98. “Let’s see. The first step is that I turn on the computer. When the screen comes on, I click the mouse to Word, my word processing program.” The statement in quotes best illustrates which of Vygotsky’s concepts?
b.Repetition in learning
99. Natalie can do her math problems when her mother helps her but becomes frustrated when she has to work alone. Which best describes her?
a.The task is below her zone of proximal development because she needs help to be able to solve them.
b.The task is beyond her zone of proximal development because she becomes frustrated.
c.The task is within her zone of proximal development because her mother’s help is beneficial.
d.The task is beyond her zone of proximal development because external aid is necessary.
Use the following vignette for items 100-105.
Esteban works with his father on their vegetable farm in south Texas. “We are very careful,” Esteban’s father emphasizes, as he shows Esteban and his brothers how to stack tomatoes in crates so they won’t bruise. “We call it primacita,” he says. “It’s what we mean when we first put a layer of the large, not-yet-ripened ones on the bottom, and we work our way to the top.” He then guides the boys as they stack several crates of tomatoes.
A few weeks later, Esteban cautions his younger brother Pepe, “Don’t stack the tomatoes that way. They’ll get bruised,” when he sees Pepe putting riper tomatoes on the bottom of the crate. Pepe then changes the way he stacks the tomatoes and follows the procedure their father demonstrated.