Use the following information for Items 98 and 99.
Four teachers : 1200608.
Use the following information for Items 98 and 99.
Four teachers were discussing their test-anxious students.
Mrs. Rowe commented, “I have them practice on items that are like those that will be on the test. Then I try to motivate them by mentioning in passing that some of the items on the test will challenge them, and they’re going to have to do some thinking.”
“I do the same thing, meaning I have them practice,” Mr. Potter comments, “but I don’t say anything one way or the other about how difficult the test will be.”
“I do stress reduction activities with my class,” Mrs. Richards adds. “Just before we begin the test, I have them close their eyes, visualize themselves doing well on the test, and take a few deep breaths. Then we start.”
“I do something a little different, “Mr. Lareau adds. “I tell them that I know they will do well, and I tell them to be ready for a test every day, because I’m not going to tell them when we’re having it, except that it will be sometime during the week. It keeps them on their toes.”
98.Based on research, the teacher most effective in reducing test anxiety in her students is likely to be:
99.Based on research, the teacher least effective in reducing test anxiety in her students is likely to be:
Use the following vignette for items 100 and 101.
Four life science teachers are all teaching a two-week unit on body systems, such as the nervous system, the skeletal system, the digestive system, and so on.
Mr. Wertch teaches the unit, and when he has completed the unit, he prepares a unit test. He gives the test, scores it, and assigns students grades. He returns the test, shows the students their grades, and then moves to his next unit.
As Mr. Martinez plans his unit, he prepares a series of quizzes and his unit test. After teaching each body system, he gives the quiz for that system, discusses it with the students, and then moves to the next system. The day before his unit test, he gives the students some practice items, he gives the test the following day, scores it overnight, and discusses each of the items the next day.
Mrs. Stevens teaches the unit, and when she has completed it, she prepares a unit test. She gives the test, scores it, and assigns students grades. She returns the test, shows the students their grades, asks the students if they have any questions, and then discusses each of the items that the students have questions about.
Mrs. Solis teaches each of the systems and then prepares a short quiz on that system. She gives the quiz, discusses each of the items with the students, and then moves to the next system. When she is finished with the unit, she prepares a unit test, gives it, scores and returns it, and discusses the results with the students.
100.The teacher whose assessment practices are most effective is:
101.The teacher whose assessment practices are least effective is:
102.Mrs. Brown is debating about going over the results of the quiz she gave yesterday. She feels it is a waste of time. Based on research examining effective testing, which of the following is the most valid advice to give her?
a.Go over the results, because these discussions are often more valuable than the original instruction.
b.Only go over items missed by more than two thirds of the class.
c.Don’t go over the results, since discussing the test takes up instructional time that can be better spent on new topics.
d.Don’t go over the results, since discussing the test leads to arguments that detract from classroom climate.
Read the following case study, which illustrates a teacher working with his students. Then answer the questions that follow the case study.
CASE STUDY ILLUSTRATING ANDREW ROBINSON’S TESTING PROCEDURES
Andrew Robinson is a seventh-grade social studies teacher who is finishing his cultural unit on Mexico and Central America. He teaches five sections of geography. We join him with his first-period class Wednesday morning.
1. “Okay, everyone,” Andrew began, “Listen carefully, now. We are finished with our study of Central America and its cultural traditions. I’ve reminded you every day since last Friday that we’re having a test tomorrow.
2. “Oh, Mr. Robinson, do we have to?” Sheila groaned in mock protest.
3. “Too bad. Mean Mr. Robinson gives a test every week,” Andrew smiled back at Sheila. “Just think. We have it tomorrow. I’ll give it back to you on Friday, and I’ll even give you the weekend off.”
4. “ALL RIGHT!” the class shouted.
5. Andrew held up his hand to settle them down and went on, “Now, let’s think about the test. First, let’s talk about some individual items; then, I’ll give you an overview of the test. I’m going to challenge you on some of the questions, but you’ve all been working hard, and I know you’ll do well. Every time you’ve had a tough test, you’ve tried harder and done better.”
6. He continued, “We’ve been comparing cultures, and I want you to get more practice in making those comparisons, plus I want you to keep working on expressing yourselves in writing. Take a look at this.”
7. Andrew displayed the following paragraphs for the students on the overhead projector.
Read the description, and identify (in the example) the characteristics of culture that were discussed in class.
Jorge (pronounced Horhay) is a small Mexican boy who is growing up on a farm in the mountains outside Mexico City. He rises early, goes to the small chapel in his home for his morning prayers, and then breakfasts on a large meal of beans and tortillas made from the products of the family farm. His mother always asks him if the Virgin Mary gave him her blessings, and Jorge always says “yes” with a smile. Jorge walks to school a mile down the dusty road. He leaves as his father goes out to cultivate the corn that is the primary source of income for the family. Jorge’s mother then milks the goats and turns the rich cream into delicious butter and cheese.
In the early afternoon, Jorge comes home from school, and the family talks quietly in their dialect, which is Spanish with some influence from the Aztecs. As the day cools, Jorge often plays soccer with boys in the nearby village while his father strums his guitar and his mother hums the rhythmic Latin melodies they all love. They go to bed shortly after sunset to prepare for the next day.
8. “Read the example carefully,” Andrew directed his students.
9. “Now, take out a piece of paper, and answer the question that is given in the directions,” he continued after waiting for a few moments.
10. Andrew watched as the students studied the screen and worked silently for about ten minutes. Finally, he began, “Someone tell me what they wrote as a response.”
11. “It says in the example that they eat beans and tortillas, and we discussed the food a group eats as part of their culture,” Judy responded.
12. “Yes, very good, Judy,” Andrew praised. “Notice, everyone, that Judy didn’t just say ‘food,’ but instead, identified the food they eat in the example. This indicates that she is relating the information in the example to what we discussed in class.”
13. The class went on with students identifying the religion, type of work, and recreation in Jorge’s family.
14. “They’re in good shape,” Andrew thought to himself as he listened to their analysis. He went on, “That’s all very good. Now, on the test tomorrow, you’re going to have to do something like this with another example. Remember, when you write your responses, you’re going to have to relate the example to what we have discussed in class, just as we did with Jorge and his family.”
15. He continued, “You’re also going to need to know the countries’ climates, natural resources, and physical features, as well as be able to locate them on a map and identify their capitals. For example, what country is this?” he asked, displaying an outline map on the overhead projector and pointing to Nicaragua. “Mike?”
16. “Nicaragua!” Mike responded instantly.
17. “Give us another example,” the class requested.
18. “Okay,” Andrew smiled and displayed the following on the overhead.
We are about seventeen degrees north of the equator and are about in the middle of this country. We are in the most populous country in Central America. Most of the people here are of Indian or mixed European and Indian descent. This description best fits:
19. “What is the answer? Mary?” Andrew asked.
20. “It’s Guatemala,” Mary said nervously after some hesitation.
21. “Yes, excellent, Mary!” Andrew encouraged, knowing that Mary appeared to be genuinely nervous in anticipating tests and frequently missed them, the following day producing a note saying she had been sick. “Now, tell us why it’s Guatemala,” Andrew continued. “Sue?”
22. “First, seventeen degrees only goes through sort of the middle of Guatemala and Belize,” Sue responded.
23. “Also, Guatemala is the most populous country in Central America, and they are of Indian descent,” Marsha added.
With that, he concluded his review.
24. We join him the next morning before school. He came in the classroom before the students arrived, and, even though his room was quite crowded, he moved the desks as far apart as possible and had them ready when the students walked in. He opened a window and then changed his mind, reacting to the noise of a lawn mower outside.
25. As the class filed into the room, he directed them to their seats, asking for their attention. When everyone was looking at him, he instructed them to clear everything off their desks.
He then said, “Tear the last sheet off the back of the test, and write your name on it. Do that right now. Now, as you take the test, put all your answers on this sheet. When you’re finished, turn the test over, and I’ll come around and pick it up. Then, begin the assignment on the board. I’ve written that it’s due on Tuesday to remind you. If anyone gets too warm as you’re working, raise your hand, and I’ll turn on the fan,” he continued, referring to the large floor fan at the front of the room.
26. “Work carefully on the test, now,” he said with a smile. “You’re all well prepared, and I know you will do your best. You have the whole period, so you should have plenty of time.”
27. Andrew stood in the front corner of the room, scanning the class as the students worked. As he watched, he noticed Mary looking out the window periodically for several seconds at a time. Finally, he went over to her desk, looked at her paper, and whispered as he touched her shoulder, “It looks like you’re moving along very well. Try to concentrate on the test a little harder now, and I’ll bet you do fine.” He moved quietly back to the front of the room.
28. Suddenly, the intercom broke into the silence. “Mr. Robinson,” the voice said, “Mrs. Brown (the principal) needs to see you for a moment. Could you come down to the office?”
29. “I’ll come down at the end of the period,” Andrew said back to the box. “I’m in the middle of a test right now.”
30. “Thank you,” the voice responded, and the intercom was then silent.
31. As the students finished their papers. Andrew moved to their desks, picking up the tests, and stacking them on a table in front of the room. The students then began the assignment Andrew had referred to just before they began taking the test.
32. Friday morning, the students filed into the room and asked as they came in, “Do you have our tests finished yet!”
33. “Yes, I do,” Andrew responded.” I was up half the night scoring them.”
34. “How did we do!”
35. “Mostly, very well,” Andrew answered. “I’m real proud of all of you and the efforts you’ve made.”
36. “There were a couple places where we had a little trouble,” he continued, “and I want to go over them this morning, so when you have another test you won’t run into the same problems.” He then quickly handed the students back their tests.
37. “What does this mean that you wrote on my paper, ‘You identified the cultural feature recreation, but you didn’t say what it was in the example’?” Sondra asked from the back of the room.
38. “Remember on Wednesday we said that you needed to identify both the cultural characteristic and the example of it from the description, like soccer and music from the example with Jorge that we analyzed,” Andrew responded. “Antonio swam, dived, and fished, and you needed to say that in your essay. We’ll discuss the essay question in a bit, but let’s start from the beginning of the test.”
39. “A number of you had trouble with Item 15,” he continued. “Many of you took choice c. What is the correct answer? Ann?”
40. Andrew then discussed several of the items, in each case describing what was wrong with the incorrect choices. He discussed the essay question in detail and finally said, “I have placed two exceptionally good essay responses on the board for everyone to examine. We’ll discuss these tomorrow. I will be here after school today and tomorrow morning before class. If you have any other questions, come and see me either time.”
41. With that, he picked up the tests, putting his original copy with notes for revising several of the items in a special file folder, and he began his lesson for the day.
103.Identify three effective actions Andrew demonstrated in preparing his students for the test, and defend your responses by citing information taken directly from the case study.
104.Identify three effective behaviors Andrew demonstrated as he administered the test, and again defend your answer with information taken directly from the case study.
105.Identify three effective teaching behaviors Andrew demonstrated after the test was given and when it was returned to the students. Defend your response with information taken directly from the case study.