What Is Development?
1.Of the following, what the best definition : 1200632.
What Is Development?
1.Of the following, what is the best definition of development?
a.Changes that occur in human beings as they grow from infancy to adulthood
b.The process of adjusting schemes to maintain a state of equilibrium
c.Modifying environmental experience to fit existing schemes
d.Physiological changes in an individual that result from genetic makeup
2. Which of the following is a principle of development?
a.Development proceeds in discrete steps, like walking up a stairway.
b.Development and learning are relatively independent.
c.Children develop at about the same rate until they reach school age.
d.Development depends on both heredity and the environment.
3.Brain nerve cells are called:
4.The components of neurons that transmit outgoing messages to other neurons are called:
5. Of the following, which provides the best evidence of early brain development?
a.Language development, increased energy consumption in the brain, and optical acuity
b.Psychomotor development, language development, and interpersonal sensitivity
c.High blood sugar utilization in the brain, language development, and developmental spurts
d.High synapse formation, high blood sugar utilization in the brain, and increased brain activity
6.Research on critical periods in brain research most nearly suggests which of the following?
a.Critical periods exist for humans but are flexible.
b.The best time for the introduction of reading and math is 6 to 8 years.
c.Critical periods provide critical “windows of opportunities” for developmental growth.
d.Preschool should be a time of exploration and free play.
7. The finding that people who learn a foreign language later in life often speak with an accent is best explained by:
a.the importance of optimal environments.
b.the existence of critical periods.
c.increased neural activity during language development.
d.the effects of enriched environments.
8.The part of the brain responsible for much of human problem solving and language is the:
9. One eighth grader is a young woman, physically and emotionally mature, whereas her classmate is still a “little girl,” both physically and emotionally. Which of the following principles of development does this example best illustrate?
a.Development is continuous and relatively orderly.
b.Experience enhances development.
c.Learning contributes to development.
d.Individuals develop at different rates.
Use the following example for Items 10–12.
A first-grade teacher demonstrates that air takes up space by pushing an inverted drink cup into a fish bowl of water. The students see that the cup doesn’t fill with water. Natalie explains that water doesn’t go into the cup because “the cup is tipped over.” Euchica says, “My dad and I were in the swimming pool, and when he tipped the cup, some air got out and water got in, but if he didn’t tip the cup, no water could get in.”
10.Which of the following conclusions is most valid?
a.Natalie is more “developed” than is Euchica, because she made a comment based on observation.
b.Euchica is more “developed” than is Natalie, because she applied understanding in the context of the learning activity based on her background experience.
c.Euchica is more “developed” than Natalie, because she is more mature.
d.Both of the children are about equally developed, because they are both in the first grade, and children of the same age tend to be at about the same developmental level.