1) What geographical conditions contributed to the rise of Mesopotamia?

A) convenient seaports

B) rich mineral resources

C) fertile farmlands

D) extensive forests

2) Mesopotamia was in present-day

A) Iraq.

B) Iran.

C) Syria.

D) Israel.

3) Which name means “between the rivers”?

A) Kush

B) Nubia

C) Mesopotamia

D) Sumer

4) Which of the following accurately describes the Epic of Gilgamesh?

A) It was an Egyptian poem that paid homage to the Nile.

B) It was a Hebrew creation story.

C) It was an Akkadian religious hymn.

D) It was an epic poem about Osiris and Seth.

5) Which of the following statements does NOT characterize the religious beliefs of the people of Mesopotamia?

A) polytheism

B) the belief that humans had to serve the gods in this life.

C) optimism about an afterlife that would be much better than their current lives.

D) a belief that the gods would punish them if they were displeased.

6) The Sumerians created all of the following EXCEPT

A) cuneiform.

B) the first writing system.

C) a number system based on sixty.

D) a phonetic alphabet.

7) Which of these Sumerian innovations did NOT serve to support the ruling powers?

A) the wheel

B) ziggurats

C) cuneiform

D) the calendar

8) Ziggurats were used for all of the following EXCEPT

A) religious ceremonies.

B) lookouts for enemy attacks.

C) government functions.

D) tombs.

9) Which of the following was the first system of writing?

A) Sanskrit

B) the Phoenician alphabet

C) cuneiform

D) hieroglyphics

10) What was the relationship between the Babylonians and the Sumerians?

A) The Babylonians were invaders who learnt from the Sumerians.

B) The Babylonians and Sumerians inhabited the same lands, taken from the Assyrians.

C) The Sumerians conquered the Babylonians.

D) The Babylonians and Sumerians were two regional powers conquered by the Hittites.

11) Who was the most prominent leader of the Akkadians?

A) Sargon

B) Hammurabi

C) Nebuchadnezzar II

D) Cyrus the Great

12) The Amorites could also be called

A) Sumerians.

B) Akkadians.

C) Babylonians.

D) Chaldeans.

13) Which of the following does NOT apply to the Code of Hammurabi?

A) Penalties for crimes were based on the principle of retribution.

B) Punishments differed according to social status.

C) Property rights were valued very highly.

D) Women had no rights.

14) The ideology that best explains Hammurabi’s position with respect to commercial transactions was

A) let the buyer beware.

B) an eye for an eye.

C) property rights have little significance.

D) sellers must guarantee all work.

15) Which of these was NOT introduced to West Asia by the Indo-Europeans?

A) domesticated horses

B) new languages

C) agriculture

D) Hittite rule

16) Which of the following locations was part of the Hittite, Assyrian, and Chaldean empires?

A) Babylon

B) Egypt

C) Palestine

D) Syria

17) In most cultures today, it is customary for the bride’s family to pay for the wedding. This custom has roots in the ancient practice of

A) the bride’s family choosing the groom.

B) the groom’s family arranging the marriage.

C) the bride’s family supplying the dowry.

D) the bride’s family walking her down the aisle.

18) In addition to his law code, Hammurabi is also known for

A) adopting monotheism.

B) conquering most of Africa.

C) making advancements in metalwork.

D) instigating building projects.

19) Which of the following developments led to huge changes in warfare and travel?

A) the domestication of horses

B) the development of iron ore

C) the development of bridges

D) the potter’s wheel

20) Which of the following accurately describes the Hittite kingdom?

A) matriarchal and matrilineal

B) hierarchical and patriarchal

C) monotheistic

D) matriarchal and hierarchical

21) Which of the following civilizations is credited with building the Hanging Gardens of


A) Chaldeans

B) Persians

C) Sumerians

D) Assyrians

22) Where is the Ishtar gate?

A) Ur

B) Jerusalem

C) Lagash

D) Babylon

23) Which of the following civilizations controlled their conquered enemies by torture and terrorization?

A) Chaldeans

B) Persians

C) Sumerians

D) Assyrians

24) The city of Nineveh was part of which ancient civilization?

A) Sumerians

B) Assyrians

C) Akkadians

D) Persians

25) Which empire conquered and brought an end to the Chaldean Empire?

A) Assyrians

B) Persians

C) Hittites

D) Egyptians

26) Which of these divided Africa into two great regions?

A) the Congo River

B) the Nile River

C) the Sahara

D) the Niger River

27) Which of these was NOT common to Egypt and Mesopotamia?

A) a polytheistic religion

B) the central role of great rivers

C) connections to neighboring cultures

D) early, stable unification under one state

28) How did Egyptian territory change during the New Kingdom?

A) Egypt lost Upper Egypt, but retained control of Lower Egypt.

B) Egypt lost Syria and Palestine.

C) Egypt gained land along the eastern Mediterranean Sea.

D) Egypt gained the communities of Giza and Memphis.

29) After 5000 B.C.E., the climate changed in Africa. What happened?

A) Monsoons began to flood the continent.

B) Savannah began to overtake desert land.

C) Rainfall became scarce, so the climate was drier.

D) The Nile began flooding erratically, thus wiping out the Egyptian kingdom.

30) Which of the following statements best accounts for the failure of Akhenaton’s reign?

A) The Egyptian people viewed his reign as illegitimate because he was not the direct descendent of Amenhotep III.

B) He invested the majority of the country’s resources on expansionist policies and neglected domestic priorities.

C) He was obsessed with his religion to the neglect of other affairs, as he tried desperately to reform Egypt into a monotheistic society.

D) He was a child king who was murdered before reaching adulthood.

31) Who united upper and lower Egypt?

A) Thutmosis III

B) Menes

C) Amenhotep III

D) Amenhotep IV

32) Which ancient Egyptian kingdom was known for building pyramids?

A) Old Kingdom

B) Middle Kingdom

C) New Kingdom

D) Second Intermediate Period

33) The Great Pyramid was built for

A) Thutmosis III.

B) Hatshepsut.

C) Khufu.

D) Akhenaton.

34) Which Egyptian kingdom would best be described as imperialistic?

A) Early Dynastic Period

B) Old Kingdom

C) Middle Kingdom

D) New Kingdom

35) What caused the downfall of the Middle Kingdom?

A) The Nile flooded unexpectedly.

B) Egypt was plagued by droughts.

C) The Hyksos invaded and conquered.

D) The Egyptian economy suffered due to pyramid construction.

36) In what way was Hatshepsut unusual as an Egyptian ruler?

A) in being a female ruler of Egypt

B) in ruling over all of Egypt

C) in worshipping Osiris

D) in inheriting rule from her father

37) Which Egyptian pharaoh became known as Akhenaton?

A) Thutmosis III

B) Hatshepsut

C) Amenhotep III

D) Amenhotep IV

38) Nefertiti was

A) an Egyptian goddess.

B) King Tut’s wife.

C) a Mesopotamian goddess associated with fertility.

D) Akhenaton’s wife.

39) Which name means “gold” or “black”?

A) Egypt

B) Nubia

C) Mesopotamia

D) Sumer

40) Which of these connected Egypt with the African interior?

A) Kush

B) Syria

C) Meroë

D) the Hittites

41) Which of these had the greatest cultural impact on Nubia?

A) Egypt

B) Syria

C) the Hyksos

D) the Amorites

42) Which people formed Kush?

A) Egyptians

B) Nubians

C) Babylonians

D) Sumerians

43) Carthage was a colony founded on the North African coast by a seafaring people from West Asia known as the

A) Hittites.

B) Egyptians.

C) Phoenicians.

D) Assyrians.

44) Carthage was unlike other Phoenician colonies in what way?

A) It became independent power.

B) It was on the Mediterranean Sea.

C) It relied on trade.

D) Its society was largely urban.

45) What was the source of Phoenician influence?

A) military strength

B) a large population

C) extensive territory

D) a large trading network

46) Which people laid the foundations for the phonetic alphabets used throughout the West?

A) Babylonians

B) Sumerians

C) Persians

D) Phoenicians

47) Where was the Phoenician homeland?

A) the Eastern Mediterranean

B) Mesopotamia

C) Anatolia

D) the Western Mediterranean

48) The Hebrews laid the foundation for all of the religions EXCEPT

A) Judaism.

B) Christianity.

C) Islam.

D) Hinduism.

49) Which Hebrew king was able to unite the Israelites but was unable to decisively defeat the Philistines?

A) Saul

B) David

C) Solomon

D) Nebuchadnezzar

50) Which of the following people were NOT polytheistic?

A) Sumerians

B) Hebrews

C) Egyptians

D) Aryans

51) Which Hebrew man was called “Israel”?

A) Judah

B) Isaac

C) Jacob

D) David

52) Which of these was common to the cultural traditions of Sumeria and Israel?

A) flood narratives

B) monotheism

C) polytheism

D) a religious covenant

53) Which Hebrew king was known for elaborate building projects?

A) Saul

B) David

C) Solomon

D) Nebuchadnezzar

54) Which of the following accomplishments did NOT occur during the reign of King David?

A) Jerusalem was established as the capital city.

B) The Philistines were defeated.

C) A standing army was created.

D) The temple was built.

55) Which people allowed the Hebrews to return to Jerusalem and rebuild their temple following their Babylonian exile?

A) Assyrians

B) Chaldeans

C) Persians

D) Egyptians

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